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CLP 181 1992

"Poetic Painting" in China

(Note: this seminar was preparatory to my writing The Lyric Journey, in which some work by seminar students is noted and acknowledged.)

Slide Show:

I. Background: unpoetic, "prosey" painting, 10th-11th cent.

· Anon., Deer in Autumn Forest, pair of hanging scrolls.

· Huang Ch'üan, 10th cent., Birds and Insects (for his son)

· Flour Mill Powered by Water Wheel, 10th or early 11th cent.?

· Spring Festival on the River (Ch'ing-ming shang-ho t'u), late No. Sung or early So. Sung, early 12th cent.? Both examples of chieh-hua, ruled-line painting.

· Anon. 10th cent.? Bamboo and Old Trees Growing by a Rock. Shanghai Mus.

Monumental Landscape of 11th cent., Northern Sung

· Fan K'uan, "Traveling Among Streams and Mountains

· Kuo Hsi, "Early Spring," dated 1072.

Jumping ahead: cf. Liang K'ai, Winter Landscape with Travelers, Tokyo N.M.; signed album leaf by Liang K'ai, Palace Mus., Peking; another, same collection. Fan-shaped album leaf by him, former Crawford col., now Met: Strolling on River Bank. Cf: Anon. 13th cent., Winter, from Landscapes with Figures of Four Seasons. Konchiin, Kyoto.

Back to late Northern Sung: Landscape by Li Kung-nien.

 

II. Illustrations to Poetic Texts

· Att. Ku K'ai-chih, ca. 400: The Nymph of the Lo River. Versions in Palace Mus., Peking, and Liaoning Museum.

· Ch'iao Chung-ch'ang, early 12th cent.? The Red Cliff, after the ode by Su Shih or Su Tung-p'o. (Cf. album leaf by Ma Lin, late Sung: shadows, reflection.)

· Ma Ho-chih, mid-12th cent., The Red Cliff.

· Wu Yüan-chih, late 12th cent., The Red Cliff.

· Li Sung, early 13c., The Red Cliff, fan ptg.

Attrib. Li Kung-lin, late No. Sung. Illustrations to the "Homecoming" Ode of T'ao Yüan-ming. Another, by Ho Ch'eng, early Yüan dynasty court ptr., late 13th cent. Another, Ch'ien Hsüan, late 13th cent., Met. Mus. Study by Elizabeth Brotherton.

Emperor Hui-tsung (1082-1135, reigned 1101-1126).

· Five-colored Parokeet, Boston M.F.A.

· Birds in Flowering Wax Tree, Palace Mus., Taipei.

· Pheasant on Flowering Branch, Palace Mus., Peking.

See Bush & Shih, Early Ch. Texts on Ptg, pp. 134-138 (Teng Ch'un), also Siren, Ch. Ptg., v. II, pp. 74-80, on Hui-tsung's Academy.

Ma Ho-chih (served under following emperor, Kao-tsung, mid-12th cent.)

Illustrations to Mao-shih (Book of Odes.) Cf. Taoist Paradise scroll attrib. to Chao Po-su, same period. Dissolution of form, poetic mildness.

III. The Emergence of Poetic Landscape

Chao Ling-jang, or Chao Ta-nien, active 1070-1100.

· Boston M.F.A. scroll, dtd. 1100.

· River Village in Autumn Dawn, Met. Mus.

· Attrib. Hui-ch'ung, River Scene, album leaf, Liaoning Mus.

(Attrib. Hui-ch'ung, early Sung. Dawn Over Streams and Mountains in Spring. Handscroll, Palace Mus., Peking. No slides.)

· River Scene with Birds, anon., No. Sung? Palace Mus., Peking. See Gloria Lannom masters thesis. Poems by Su Tung-p'o, Huang T'ing-chien, etc.

· Liang Shih-min (official, active under Hui-tsung). River Scene in Winter. Palace Mus., Peking. (Passage on him in Hsüan-ho hua-p'u, cat. of Hui-tsung's collection.)

· Paintings attributed to Mi Fu (1051-1107), Mi Yu-jen (1075-1101). Study of latter by Peter Sturman.

· Li Sung, active late 12th-early 13th cent. The West Lake at Hangchou. Shanghai Museum.

· Anon., ca. 1170, "Dream Journey in the Hsiao-Hsiang Region." Tokyo N.M. Study by Valerie Malenfer Ortiz.

· Eight Views of the Hsiao-Hsiang Region. Original set by Sung Ti, 11th cent. Article by Alfreda Murck (series with signature of Wang Hung, mid-12th cent. Szechwan painter; later?)

· Hsiao-Hsiang Eight Views paintings att. to Mu-ch'i; by Yü-chien; late Sung.

IV. Paintings Based on Poems in the Southern Sung Academy

Ma Yüan

· Walking on a Mountain Path in Spring

· Landscape with Willows, fan, Boston MFA

· Banquet by Lantern Light, Palace Mus., Taipei (hereafter: KK/T)

· Palace by Evening, fan, Palace Mus., Beijing. Another, square, Boston MFA.

· Ten Scenes of Water, Palace Mus., Beijing. (hereafter: KK/B)

Anon. So. Sung Academy. Weaving Silk. KK/B

Ma Lin.

· Waiting for Guests by Lamplight, KK/T. (Skira)

· Listening to the Wind in the Pines, " "

· Evening Scene with Swallows, Nezu Mus., Tokyo

· Scholar Reclining and Watching Rising Clouds, fan, Cleveland.

Others.

Hsia Kuei

· A Pure and Remote View of Streams and Mountains. KK/T. Handscroll.

· Landscape with Rainstorm, Boston MFA. Insc. by Emp. Ning-tsung, orig. on reverse of fan?

(Anon. Sung, Flowers and Butterfly; insc. by Emp. Kao-tsung on reverse; found in tomb of early Ming prince, Chu T'an.)

· Winter Landscape with Returning Farmer, Yanagi Col. Kyoto. Other album leaves by or attributed to Hsia Kuei.

· Anon., Man in boat approaching shore with misty trees. Boston MFA (reprod., along with others, in their Portfolio of Ch. Ptgs, T'ang through Sung.) Would like to see as work of Hsia Kuei...

Calligraphy, fans and album leaves, by Southern Sung emperors: Kao-tsung (ruled 1127-1163), Hsiao-tsung (ruled 1163-1190), Ning-tsung (ruled 1195-1225), and Li-tsung (ruled 1225-1265.) Also by Yang Mei-tzu ("Younger Sister Yang"), really Empress Yang, 1162-1232, consort of Emp. Ning-tsung. See Chiang Chao-shen, "The Identity of Yang Mei-tzu and the Paintings of Ma Yüan," in National Palace Museum Bulleting II/2, May 1967, and II/3, July 1967. (Somebody Xerox?)

Chao K'uei (1186-1266). "In Spirit of Tu Fu Poem": handscroll (bamboo groves along river.) Shanghai Museum. See I-yuan to-ying, 1978 no. 2.

Anon. 12th century (old attrib. to Ma Ho-chih). Junks by a City Wall in Moonlight. Fan-shaped album leaf, Cleveland Mus.

V. The Yüan Dynasty

Ch'ien Hsüan again. Wang Hsi-chih Watching Geese; T'ao Yüan-ming's Homecoming. Handscrolls. Both Met. Museum, NYC.

Chao Meng-fu. "Autumn Colors on Ch'iao and Hua Mts.", 1295. KK/T (prose insc.); Bamboo, Old Tree, and Rock, KK/B. Quatrain (doggerel)

Sheng Mao-yeh. Boating on the River in Autumn, KK/T (Chinese Art Treasures)

Ni Tsan. Jung-hsi Studio, 1472; Bamboo, Rock, and Old Tree.

Chang Wu, "The Nine Songs," 1360, Cleveland Museum of Art.

VI. The Ming Dynasty

Tu Chin (active late 15th cent.)

· The Nine Songs (KK/B)

· Illustrations to Old Poems, callig. by Chin Tsung, dtd. 1500. KK/B.

Shen Chou (1427-1509).

· Album leaves, Nelson Gal., K.C. (Trans. of one in Chas. Mason paper)

· Another album, KK/B: landscape after Wu Chen; Chick, Cicada.

Wen Cheng-ming (1470-1559)

· Album leaf (from same series as Shen Chou's), Nelson Gal., 1504.

· Spring Trees After Rain, 1507, KK/T.

· Red Cliff, 1558, Detroit Museum of Art.

"Wen Cheng-ming" (another hand?) The Red Cliff, after Chao Po-su. Dtd. 1548. KK/T.

Lu Chih. (1496-1576)

· Parting at Hsün-yang ("The P'i-p'a Song"), 1554. Freer Gallery of Art.

Cf: Ch'iu Ying, 1494/5-1552. Same subject; handscroll in Nelson Gallery.

· Album with Poetic Themes ("Pleasures of Living in Retirement"), KK/B.

Hsieh Shih-ch'en (1487-after 1567). Album of LS w. fig., KK/B.

Wen Chia (1501-1583), son of Wen Cheng-ming.

· The P'i-p'a (Lute) Song," 1569. Osaka Municipal Museum.

· LS after a couplet by Tu Fu, 1576. KK/T.

VII. Paintings and Prints Based on Poems in the Late Ming

Books that are useful for this period:

Chu-tsing Li and James C.Y. Watt, eds., The Chinese Scholar's Studio: Artistic Life in the Late Ming Period. (Abbreviated below as CSS). Good essays by James Watt, Wai-kam Ho, Chu-tsing Li; notes on late Ming pictorial woodblock printing by Wang Qingzheng.

James Cahill, ed., The Restless Landscape:Chinese Painting of the Late Ming Period. Berkeley, University Art Museum, 1971. Abbrev. as Restless LS.

James Cahill, The Distant Mountains: Chinese Painting of the Late Ming Dynasty, 1570-1644. New York and Tokyo, Weatherhill, 1982. Abbrev. as Distant Mts.

Wai-kam Ho, ed., The Century of Tung Ch'i-ch'ang. 2 vols. Kansas City, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 1992. Abbrev. as Century of TCC.

For background: Craig Clunas, Superfluous Things: Material Culture and Social Status in Early Modern China. Urbana and Chicago, University of Illinois Press, 1991.

Robert E. Hegel, The Novel in Seventeenth Century China, New York, Columbia U. Press, 1981 (pp. 51-546: "Artistic Pursuits and Individual Style.")

For poetry:

Richard John Lynn, "Orthodoxy and Enlightenment: Wang Shih-chen's Theory of Poetry and Its Antecedents." In: Wm. Theodore de Bary, ed., The Unfolding of Neo-Confucianism, New York, Columbia U. Press, 1975, pp. 217-169.

Also (less relevant) his "The Sudden and the Gradual in Chinese Poetry Criticism: An Examination of the Ch'an-Painting Analogy." In: Peter N. Gregory, ed., Sudden and Gradual: Approaches to Enlightenment in Chinese Thought, Honolulu, Univ. of Hawaii Press, 1978, pp. 381-427.

Jonathan Chaves, "The Expression of Self in the Kung-an School: Non-Romantic Individualism." In: Robert E. Hegel and richard C. Hessney, ed., Expressions of the Self in Chinese Literature, New York, Columbia U. Press, 1985. (Comparisons with Western poetry heavily China-biased.)

Printed poems and pictures:

· Pa-chung hua-p'u, eight albums pub. in China in 1620s, reprinted in Japan in 1671 as Hasshû gafu.

· Fang-shih mo-p'u, 1588, Ch'eng-shih mo-yüan, 1606, both albums of designs for ink cakes, published in Anhui province. (See Shadows of Mt. Huang for these).

· Lo-hsüan pien-ku chien-p'u, poetry papers, color printing and embossing, printed in 1626 in Nanking. See CSS no. 27. Twenty leaves of "hua-shih" or "painting poems," pictures with single lines of poetry.

Various references to popularity of poetry, poetry clubs, etc., in late Ming. Chou Hui, Chin-ling so-shih, pref. dtd. 1610, 60a: poetry club in Nanking, organized by literatus-amateur painter named Wang Wen-yao. Poetry group would compose poems, painting group would do ptgs. to illustrate them.

(Reminder of other direction in late Ming painting: works by Tung Ch'i-ch'ang, others.Tung did sometimes do ptgs. with--after?--poetic couplets, e.g. Century of TCC Pl. 29. Landscape "in spirit of Wang Wei poem," ibid. Pl. 40. Leaf from album "in spirit of Tu Fu poem," Pl. 42.1. But these are exceptions; not really very flexible/responsive? Album by Yang Wen-ts'ung, Distant Mts. 77-78. Leaves from album by Wang Chien, 1660.)

Paintings Based on Poems: Quick Survey (Note: LS=landscape)

Chung-kuo mei-shu ch'üan-chi, Complete Collection of Chinese Art, EAL N7340 C55 1984. In basement of California Hall.

Vol. 7 (Ming part II)

· no. 107, pp. . Album by Lu Chih, 1496-1576, "Pleasures of Reclusive Life." (Not really after poems. But Lu Chih did paint for Wang Shih-chen (1526-1590) an album of paintings after Wang's poems: see Louise Yuhas article in Chu-tsing Li, ed., Artists and Patrons, p. 142.)

(Note also--left off previous handout--that T'ang Yin, early 16th cent. Suchou master, stayed several times with patron working on 120-leaf album illustrating poems by Po Chü-i, finishing it in 1515. Copy of one of the leaves? in H.C.Weng collection; see Cheng-chi Hsü dissertation, v. I p. 10 for summary of inscription.)

· no. 176, Chang Fu, LS dtd. 1629, with couplet.

Cf. album leaf, Sotheby's auction cat., April 1987, 1622, couplet: "The bright moon shines between the pines; / The clear stream flows over the rocks."

· no. 179. Ch'en Kuan, LS after Wang Wei poem (couplet insc. on ptg.)

(Another, similar, w. couplet, 1638: Restless LS no. 8.)

· Wen Chia, LS with houses and figures, 1580, Shanghai Mus., slides (no illus.)

Vol. 8 (Ming part III)

· no. 25, p. 33. Chao Tso LS, 1619. Cf. "The Bamboo Monastery," Distant Mts. fig. 29, also with couplet.

· no. 62, p. 67, Li Shih-ta, Two Men in Bamboo Grove, 1615; couplet.

· no. 64, p. 68, Li Shih-ta, paradise scene? with couplet.

· no. 74, p. 76, Sung Mou-chin, two leaves after Tu Fu poems.

· no. 106, pp. 114-15, Shen Hao, album of ten leaves after couplets from Tu Fu poems.

· no. 107, pp. 116-117. Chang Jui-t'u, four landscapes from album, 1625, after lines or couplets of poetry, two from T'ao Ch'ien's "Homecoming" ode.

· no. 116, p. 127, Yüan Shang-t'ung, Winter LS after Wang Wei? famous couplet about solitary fisherman on snowy river.

· no. 142, pp. 154-55, Ni Yüan-lu, album, 1639. Own poems? old poems? couplets, 2-7s or 2-8s.

· no. 177, p. 207. Sheng Mao-yeh, misty LS with couplet.

Nanshû meigaen, EAL f6170 4325: paintings in (old) Japanese collections.

v. I: Lan Ying LS w. pines and mist, now Tokyo Nat'l Mus. Couplet.

Same volume: Two landscapes by Chang Jui-t'u with couplets, one dtd. 1631.

v. III: Chang Jui-t'u, Men Gazing at Waterfall, with couplet.Also in Distant Mts. fig. 88.

v. IV, Li Shih-ta, odd landscape, couplet at top.

(Another by him, LS with men in bamboo grove, couplet: Restless LS no. 5.)

v. XIII, Ni Yüan-lu LS with couplet, former Abe col., Osaka Municipal Museum.

v. XIII, Li Shih-ta, 1619, withy couplet.

v. XIV, Pien Wen-yü, 1633, LS w. couplet. Others.

From Distant Mts. (other than references above):

· fig. 90, Wu Pin,"Landscape with Palaces," couplet (trans. p. 179.)

· colorplt. 16: Wang Chien-chang LS, couplet, trans. p. 173: "White clouds: turn back and watch them flow together. / Green shade: go in and gaze at empty space."

Individual Artists

Shao Mi album, Seattle Art Mus., Restless LS no. 19, Distant Mts. colorplate 5 and fig. 18, Century of TCC no. 96. couplet on last leaf: "Divine realms where Immortals are concealed-- / I came once in a dream upon these shores."

· Another album, Palace Mus., Peking; no poems.

Li Shih-ta

· "Gazing Out from a Pavilion in the Mts.," 1619. Distant Mts. colorplt. 1.

· Lotus and Rock, Palace Mus., Taipei.

· LS w. men in bamboo grove, Restless LS 5.

· Fan, 1612: Arriving Home in Snowstorm.

Sheng Mao-yeh

· Album of eight landscapes, Asian Art Mus., S.F., n.d. Restless LS 13; Cahill, Distant Mts., fig. 6, 7; last with couplet: "The water is cold, and stones are seen deep down; / The pines are dusky, and wind sounds in the quiet."

· Album after poems, no date, Met. Mus. Restless LS no. 14, trans. of insc. on two: p. 58. Charles Mason paper.

· Fan ptg, 1632, Restless LS no. 15, after Lin Pu couplet: (JFC trans.) "Scattered shadows slanting, the water clear and shallow; / A dark fragrance floating, the moon a dusky yellow."

· Album leaves in Kokka 258, 283: three leaves from album of six ptd. on gold paper. All with couplets.

· Nanshû meigaen XXIV, Two men with servants on bank of misty river, swallows flying. Couplet.

· Nanshû meigaen 10: horizontal ptg, fisherman in boat, willows, rain, city wall. Dtd. 1639.

· Distant Mts. 4: "Scholars Gazing At Waterfall," 1630. Couplet (p. 37): "Pines and rocks are proper to old age; / Wisteria vines do not count the years."

· Distant Mts. 8: "Strolling in Spring Mountains," 1623. Couplet (p. 37): "Cold mountains turn to grassy green; / Streams left from autumn daily swell their flow."

· Sotheby's auction cat., June 1985? 1988? (slides): LS w. rainstorm, 1619, with couplet.

Hsiang Sheng-mo (1597-1658).

· Album of twelve landscapes, ca. 1630, after Wang Wei poems. CSS no. 15.

· Two more albums with poetic insc. (some leaves): Princeton Art Museum, 1639; Sotheby's auction, Dec. 1985. Slides.

· His "Calling to Reclusion" scrolls, with collections of poems on reclusion. CSS 46, L.A. scroll, 1626, with 20 poems of 5-char. lines. see Century of TCC pl. 98, cf. pl. 99, 1628-29, Boston M.F.A. Is he trying to re-create Wang Wei Wang-ch'uan t'u? see Tung Ch'i-ch'ang insc., CSS p. 47.

Missing late Ming artists: Ch'en Hung-shou; never did? (A kind of exception: his illustrations to the Nine Songs, 1616, pub. in woodblock, 1638, see Distant Mts. 246-47.) Chang Hung: should have, didn't? (but see his quite literal picturing of Wang Wei poetic letter, "Ascent of the Hua-tzu Hill," Compelling Image 6.7, Distant Mts. 11.) Ts'ui Tzu-chung?

Addenda: a few poetry articles left off above. They are from: Susan Bush and Christian Murck, eds., Theories of the Arts in China, Princeton, Princeton U. Press, 1983.

Shuen-fu Lin, “Chiang K’uei’s Treatises on Poetry and Calligraphy” (pp. 293-314)

Richard John Lynn, “Alternate Routes toSelf-Realization in Ming Theories of Poetry” (pp. 317-340)

Jonathan Chaves, “The Panoply of Images: A Reconsideration of the LiteraryTheory of the Kung-an School” (pp. 341-364)

Also: Yoshikawa Kôjirô, trans. by John Timothy Wixted, Five Hundred Years of Chinese Poetry, 1150-1650. Princeton, Princeton U. Press, 1989. Note especially sections on Ming poetry (pp. 124-132 on Shen Chou and his disciples!), ch. 8 (pp. 177-89), The Late Ming. Read also William Atwell's "Afterword," pp. 191-96.

Chiao-mei Liu, "Painting and Poetry of Soochow in the Late-Ming Epoch." In: I-shu hsüeh (Study of the Arts) 6, 1991.9, pp. 33-73. English summary: p 73.

Paintings illustrated are:

Fig. 1. Wen Chia, "The Peach-blossom Spring," 1577.Asian Art Mus., S.F.

Fig. 2. Chang Hung, "A Village Path to a Brushwood Gate," 1643. KK/P. (Same couplet as Wen Chia ptg. I showed?) Pp. 42-43 discussion; poem by Hsü Hun, T'ang, p. 43 middle.

Fig. 3. Li Shih-ta, "Wind and Rain at a Mt. Pass," KK/T, 1620. Tu Fu poem: p. 44. (Note: another version of same comp. by same artist, dtd. 1608, Seikado, Tokyo: Nanju 4.)

Fig. 4. Ch'en Kuan, "Landscape," 1638. Ching Yuan Chai, Berkeley. Poem (Wang Wei): pp. 44-45.

Fig. 5. Ch'en Kuan, "Washing the Inkstone," 1614, KK/T. Poem (by recipient of ptg): p. 46 middle.

Fig. 6. Ch'en Kuan, "Bamboo Stream and Flower Bank," 1629. KK/T. Poem (Chu Wan): p. 57 middle.

Fig. 7. Li Shih-ta, "Sound of Stream in Bamboo Grove," Tokyo Nat. Mus. Poem (by Shen Ch'üan-ch'i): pp. 48-49.

Fig. 8. Sheng Mao-yeh, "Gazing at a Waterfall in Autumn Mts.," 1633. Hashimoto col. (formerly). Poem (Wang Wei) p. 49.

Fig. 9. Sheng Mao-yeh, "Waiting for the Winter Sacrifice (?) among Plum and Willow Trees," 1633. Hashimoto col. Poem (Tu Fu): p. 50 middle.

Fig. 10. Ting Yün-p'eng and Sheng Mao-yeh, "Five Hundred Arhats," 1594. kyoto, Ninnaji and Private Col. (Restless LS, also article by Nishigami Minoru cited on p. 39.)

Fig. 11. Chang Fu, "Rain Passing Over Grassy Fields," 1616. Kiangsu Provincial Mus. Poem (by Keng Wei) p. 51 and n. 48.

Fig. 12. Ch'en Kuan, "Painted in the Spirit of a Wang Wei Poem," Shanghai Mus. Poem (Wang Wei): p. 53 middle.

Fig. 13. Li Shih-ta, "New Year's Scene," Taipei, Lan-ch'ien Shan-kuan (= Lin Po-shou col.) Discussion of this and others: pp. 54-55 (no source for couplet?)

Not reproduced: Sheng Mao-yeh, "Brocade Cave and Blue Mts.," KK/P, Ch'üan-chi (Ming 3) pl. 177. Poem (by Ch'en T'ao): p. 46.

PP. 57-58: references to a number of others.

Note (p. 42 top): she cites a recorded work of Sheng Mao-yeh in which (according to his inscription) he painted the picture first, then found a suitable poem by Tu Fu and inscripted it on the painting. He ends: "[Tu Fu's poem] describes the scenery and expresses the idea (fu-ching tao-i)--truly this is 'a painting in the poem!'" This backs up Charles Mason's assumption (his paper, pp. 12-13) that in such cases the artist first painted the picture and then was able to "display his erudition by choosing exactly the right poem or couplet to illuminate his work."

Chas. Mason's trans. of insc. on Sheng Mao-yeh album, Met:

· Chia Tao's (early 9c):

Birds roost in the trees beside a pond,

A monk raps on the gate beneath the moon.

· Chang Chi (d. 780):

A thousand peaks beyond a solitary candle,

Sheets of rain during the first watch.

· Hsü Hun (early 9c):

Lofty trees in dawn light restored to dense detail,

The distant mountains grow evermore clear.

(Mine in Restless LS p. 58 left:

The tall trees, by the light of dawn, regain their dense detail;

Over distant mountains the sky grows ever clearer.)

· Tu Fu (8th cent.)

Fog conceals trees on the flat city outskirts,

Wind contains the waves between the wide banks.

· Wen T'ing-yün (mid-9th cent.):

Cockcrow, a thatched house in moonlight,

Footsteps in the frost on a plank bridge.

· Ch'üan Te-yü (759-818):

Crag flowers dot the chilly current,

A stone ledge is swept by fragrant clouds.

VIII. "Poetic Painting" in the Ch'ing Dynasty

Article: Jao Tsung-i, "Ming-chi wen-jen yü hui-hua" (Painting and the Literati in the Late Ming), Proceedings of the Symposium...[on] I-min, pp. 391-403. Abridged trans. pp. 404-409; full? trans. by James Watt in Renditions 6, 138-143. Pp. 141-2: "The Relation Between Styles in Poetry and in Painting." Pp. 142-3: "Painting as Poetic Illustration: a few Examples."

Kao Chien (1634-1707), Suchou artist. album of eight landscapes after T'ao Yuan-ming poems. Chih-lo-lou catalog (Ho Yao-kuang, Hongkong) pp. 163-170. Also: mysterious, incomplete album in UAM.

Anhui School. Reference: James Cahill, ed., Shadows of Mt. Huang: Painting and Printing of the Anhui School, Berkeley, 1981.

Background: Landscape in Ni Tsan manner by Chan Ching-feng, 1599, Shadows fig. 2, p. 37.

Landscape by Cheng Yüan-hsün, 1629, fig. 15, p. 75.

Early stage of school: landscapes by Li Yung-ch'ang, 1640; Wang Chih-jui.

Later stage: works by Yao Sung, Chu Ch'ang.

Mei Ch'ing, album, 1657. Other, later works.

Note: none of this belongs properly in our subject; it is introduced here as background for:

Shih-t'ao, 1677 album again.

Tai Pen-hsiao (1621-93). Landscapes after Poems by T'ao Yüan-ming. 12-panel screen. T'u-mu VI/8-085; cf. ibid. 10-056, another, poems unidentified.

(Cha Shih-piao, album in KK/T after poems by Fang Heng-hsien; ref. in Jao Tsung-i article.)

Nanking School.

Chou Liang-kung (1612-1672): major patron; see Hongnam Kim article in Artists and Patrons, also her dissertation, Chou Liang-kung and His Tu-hua-lu (Lives of Painters), Patron-critic and Painters in 17th Century China, 3 vols.

II/151-52: on Yeh Hsin: “He used to select poems by T’ao [Yüan-ming] for me and then painted a full hundred little pictures [in accompaniment]...I built Pai-t’ao fang (Gallery of Hundred Ptgs of T’ao Ch’ien)...to store these works.” Album doesn't survive? but cf. album in col. of Wen Fong; facing poems?

II/71-72: Chou composes poems for Hu Yü-k’un’s albums.

II/173: someone inscribes couplet by T’ang poet on ptg. by Sheng Tan; Chou comments: “If I did not see this ptg, I would not have known the marvel of the ancient man’s words.”

Wang Kai album, 1677, Cleveland Museum, Eight Dynasties #220, pp. 293-94. Poems by others; those on two leaves by Wang Kai himself. Dedicated to "the venerable Meng Weng, leader of the literary circle." (Cf. mention in Chin-ling so-shih of club where poems composed poems, painters painted in response; this kind of situation?) All original poems?

(Album of eight leaves by Wu Tan, all with quatrains, old poems? Sotheby's cat., Dec. '85.)

Shih-t'ao again. Album of 1684, KK/P. Others from 1680s, Nanking period.

· Album of 22 leaves for Huang Yen-lü, after Huang's travel poems, 1701-02. Chih-lo-lou catalog #21, pp. 28-40.

Hua Yen (1682-1765).

· Album of 16 landscapes with figures, Freer Gallery, 1729. Poems unident.

· "The Dirge of Autumn," after Ou-yang Hsiu's poem. 1755. Former Abe col., Osaka.

Chin Nung (1687-after 1764). 12-leaf "Album of Poetry and Painting," 1736. Drenowatz col./Rietberg Mus. See Chu-tsing Li catalog Fig. 51, Pl. LXXVI-LXXXI; text (v. 1) pp. 223-241. Last two on his own poems?

Lo P'ing album, Freer Gallery of Art, 1775, on lines from poems by Chiang K'uei.

Hsi Kang (1746-ca. 1816). Two landscapes, album leaves.

Jen Hsiung (1823-1857)

· Album, 1822, known from publication.

· Albums of 120 leaves on lines of poetry by Yao Hsieh (1805-1864), KK/P (part).

IX. "Poetic Painting" Emigrates to Japan; Its Practice There

Useful readings:

James Cahill, Scholar-Painters of Japan: The Nanga School, New York, Asia House Gallery, 1972, especially first four chapters, pp. 9-62.

James Cahill, "Phases and Modes in the Transmission of Ming-Ch'ing Painting Styles to Edo Japan." In: Yu-him Tam, ed., Papers of the International Symnposium on Sino-Japanese Cultural Interchange, vol. 1, Aspects of Archaeology and Art History, Hong Kong, Institute of Chinese Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1985, pp. 65-97.

James Cahill, Sakaki Hyakusen and Early Nanga Painting. Berkeley, Inst. of East Asian Studies, 1983. English version of articles published in Japanese in Bijutsushi, 1976-79.

James Cahill, "Yosa Buson and Chinese Painting," in International Symposium on the Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Property: Interregional Influences in East Asian Art History, Tokyo, National Research Institute of Cultural Properties, 1982, pp. 245-263.

James Cahill, "The 'Noble Scholar' Ideal and Image in Paintings by Kôyô and Buson: Examples in the Gitter Collection." In: The Arts of the Edo Period: An international Symposium presented by the New Orleans Museum of Art, New Orleans, 1983, pp. 1-29. (On the Buson 1772 painting discussed in this article, see also Gene Phillips, Chinese Poets and Poetics in the Art of Yosa Buson, paper for AAS panel, March 1988 (see below)

Joan Stanley-Baker, "Idealist Painting in China and Japan: Wenrenhua in a Nanga Perspective." In: Suzuki Kei Sensei Kanreki Kinen: Chûgoku Kaiga-shi Ronshû, Tokyo, 1981, 115-168. Offprint. (pp. 129-133: on Pa-chung hua-p'u, "Eight Kinds of Painting Manual, Anhui publication, 1621, reprinted in Japan as Hasshû gafu, 1672 and 1710.

Kao Mayching, Literati Paintings from Japan, Hong Kong, Institute of Chinese Studies, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1974.

Burton Watson, trans., Japanese Literature in Chinese, v. II: Poetry and Prose in Chinese by Japanese Writers of the Later Period. New York, Columbia U. Press, 1976. Intro., p. 6 ff: Ogyû Sorai "embraces views of 16th cent. Ming critics," ko-tiao or kakuchô school of formalists; by later 18c, Hokuzan and others (p. 9) "embraced ideals of rival school," late Ming, hsing-ling or seirei school that "stressed inner feeling over formal considerations & encouraged individuality and innovation in subject."

Burton Watson, trans., Kanshi: The Poetry of Ishikawa Jôzan and Other Edo-Period Poets. San Francisco, North Point Press, 1990. Introduction, pp. ix-xx.

David Pollack, The Fracture of Meaning: Japan's Synthesis of China from the Eighth through the Eighteenth Centuries. Princeton, Princeton U. Press, 1986.

Marius B. Jansen, China in the TokugawaWorld, Cambridge, Harvard U. Press, 1992 (Reischauer Lectures).

Particularly on Buson:

Calvin French et. al., The Poet-Painters: Buson and His Followers, Ann Arbor, U. of Mich. Museum of Art, 1974.

Papers by members of our 1985 (?) seminar, presented at Assoc. for Asian Studies annual meeting, panel on "Yosa Buson: Image, Meaning, Context," organized by Maribeth Graybill (with whom I co-taught the seminar): her "Introduction"; her "Buson as Heir to Saigyo and Nobuzane: A Study in Self-Fashioning"; Gene Phillips paper (see above); Yoko Woodson (auditor in seminar), "Haikai Poet, Commercial Painter: Who Bought Buson's Paintings and Why."

Yoko Woodson, doctoral dissertation. Concentrates on Rai Sanyô and Tanomura Chikuden, both later than Buson; but useful anyway.

Writings of Leon Zolbrod, Buson specialist (literature), U. of British Columbia, Vancouver. Also Yuki Sawa and Edith Marcombe Shiffert, Haiku Master Buson, San Francisco, 1978: contains lots of translations, and annotated bibliography of writings on Buson. Pp. 156-57: trans. of Buson's "Preface to the Collected Haiku of Shundei," 1777. (This is discussed by Zolbrod in his "Talking Poetry: Buson's View of Haiku.")

Mark Morris, "Buson and Shiki," Part I. In Harvard Journal of Asian Studies, (date?) pp. 381-425; Part II, ibid. (date?) pp. 255-321.

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